The life cycle of ferns is different from other land plants as both the gametophyte and the sporophyte phases are free living. This interactive illustrates the alternation of generations in ferns. Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces gametes — cells that contain half the number of chromosomes than the parent cell.
Bryophytetraditional name for any nonvascular seedless plant—namely, any of the mosses division Bryophytahornworts division Anthocerotophytaand liverworts division Marchantiophyta. Most bryophytes lack complex tissue organization, yet they show considerable diversity in form and ecology. They are widely distributed throughout the world and are relatively small compared with most seed-bearing plants.
Bryophytes are the closest extant relatives of early terrestrial plants. The first bryophytes liverworts most likely appeared in the Ordovician period, about million years ago. Because they lack lignin and other resistant structures, the likelihood of bryophytes forming fossils is rather small.
Gametophytein plants and certain algaethe sexual phase or an individual representing the phase in the alternation of generations —a phenomenon in which two distinct phases occur in the life history of the organism, each phase producing the other. The nonsexual phase is the sporophyte. In the gametophyte phase, which is haploid having a single set of chromosomesmale and female organs gametangia develop and produce eggs and sperm gametes through simple mitosis for sexual reproduction.
The text below is adapted from OpenStax Biology These two stages are the multicellular, haploid gametophyte and the multicellular diploid sporophyte. This is very different from most types of animal reproduction where there is only one multicellular stage: a diploid organism which produces single-celled haploid gametes.
Plants have developed various strategies, both sexual and asexual, to ensure reproductive success. Plants have evolved different reproductive strategies for the continuation of their species. Some plants reproduce sexually while others reproduce asexually, in contrast to animal species, which rely almost exclusively on sexual reproduction.
A gametophyte represents the sexual phase of the plant life. This cycle is named alternation of generations and organisms alternate between a sexual phase, or gametophyte generation and an asexual phase, or sporophyte generation. The term gametophyte may refer to the gametophyte phase of the plant life cycle or to the particular plant body or organ that produces gametes.
Fern Structures and Reproduction. Ferns are seedless, vascular plants. They contain two types of vascular tissue that are needed to move substances throughout the plant. Evolutionarily, this addition of vascular tissue to plants is what allowed ferns to grow up and out rather than just spreading along the ground.
Sexual reproduction takes place with slight variations in different groups of plants. Plants have two distinct stages in their lifecycle: the gametophyte stage and the sporophyte stage. The haploid gametophyte produces the male and female gametes by mitosis in distinct multicellular structures.
It is a haploid multicellular organism that develops from a haploid spore that has one set of chromosomes. The gametophyte is the sexual phase in the life cycle of plants and algae. It develops sex organs that produce gameteshaploid sex cells that participate in fertilization to form a diploid zygote which has a double set of chromosomes. Cell division of the zygote results in a new diploid multicellular organism, the second stage in the life cycle known as the sporophyte.